Re: chance of removing paint?
A question in return, is the paint job above or under the glassing?
Looking at your picture I would guess under the glass!
If so you will need to remove the the starry things by drawing over them with a Posca pen and punkifying them!
If on top and it's paint, thinners turps and or a scraper can do the job.
If the board is Polystyrene then turps is a no go! It will dissolve the foam if any gets on it!
Test pick the paint with your finger nail, that will tell you if it is under or over the glassing.
If you can't fix it put your best tough attitude on, then let your surfing do the talking!
I've taken up troll hunting just for fun, instead of a rifle I'll just use a pun! 冲浪爷爷